Goods exchange is an activity that is as old as man himself; through time, it has become more and more complex and it is spreading. Marketing is the science of studying the market in order to know the consumers’ likes, goals, desires and needs and helps companies sell their products. However, marketing consists not only in analyzing the market but also in triggering the supply, making it more attractive and desirable for the consumer. Then, marketing is divided into different points of action: a passive, an organized, an active and a social one.
A passive marketing consists of the work done with a company that controls the market by being a monopoly. A monopoly does not need to promote its products, compete with the prices or improve the quality of its supply, since it knows that sales are guaranteed. In this case, marketing has a completely passive role.
An organized marketing is the function marketing has in the market that grows every day and where there are many companies trying to lead. These new companies with new products form a region of the market in which consumers are not so strict when choosing a product by its intrinsic features or by the needs it covers, but they are more interested in knowing it and seeing what they can do with it. However, as regards this, prices are very important. The price of the new products is the reason why people buy them.
An active marketing consists of marketing getting to its highest level. Active marketing has functions within the stable market in which consumers already know the new products and are familiarized with them. In this scenario, companies continue their fierce battle to rule the market but with more tools to achieve it. In the previous market scenario, companies competed mainly as regards the price of the offered product. Nevertheless, now all marketing tools are employed in order to win the battle and gain domain. Active marketing analyzes consumer’s likes, needs, desires and goals, and applies that information to modify the product. The goal of this process of obtaining information and applying this knowledge is to modify the product so that it can be similar to what the public desires. Therefore, companies fight not only as regards prices but also as regards quality, durability, utility and product’s conformation to the market’s coherent subjectivities.
A social marketing is a theoretical category since it is never put into practice. Social marketing would be implemented in a very steady market where companies do not compete and do not try to capture more consumers, but they try to make their products have social functions, such as: environmental care, culture promotion, etc. However, we know for sure no company spends money in something from which it cannot have some kind of profit. Campaigns that are designed to fulfill social functions are related to the advertising sense and to humanize the company. In this case, companies take an advertising advantage by serving some just cause.
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